Research Papers

Juli 2024

Open Artificial Knowledge

Vadim Borisov, RIchard Schreiber
Abstract

The tremendous success of chat-based AI systems like ChatGPT, Claude, and Gemini stems from Large Language Models (LLMs) trained on vast amount of datasets. However, acquiring high-quality, diverse, and ethically sourced training data remains a significant challenge. We introduce the Open Artificial Knowledge (OAK) dataset, a large-scale resource of over 500 million tokens (at the moment of writing) designed to address this issue. OAK leverages an ensemble of state-of-the-art LLMs, including GPT4o, LLaMa3-70B, LLaMa3-8B, Mixtral-8x7B, Gemma-7B, and Gemma-2-9B , to generate high-quality text across diverse domains, guided by Wikipedia’s main categories. Our methodology ensures broad knowledge coverage while maintaining coherence and factual accuracy. The OAK dataset aims to foster the development of more capable and aligned language models while addressing critical issues of data scarcity and privacy in LLM training, and it is freely available on oakdataset.org.

The tremendous success of chat-based AI systems like ChatGPT, Claude, and Gemini stems from Large Language Models (LLMs) trained on vast amount of datasets. However, acquiring high-quality, diverse, and ethically sourced training data remains a significant challenge. We introduce the Open Artificial Knowledge (OAK) dataset, a large-scale resource of over 500 million tokens (at the moment of writing) designed to address this issue. OAK leverages an ensemble of state-of-the-art LLMs, including GPT4o, LLaMa3-70B, LLaMa3-8B, Mixtral-8x7B, Gemma-7B, and Gemma-2-9B , to generate high-quality text across diverse domains, guided by Wikipedia’s main categories. Our methodology ensures broad knowledge coverage while maintaining coherence and factual accuracy. The OAK dataset aims to foster the development of more capable and aligned language models while addressing critical issues of data scarcity and privacy in LLM training, and it is freely available on oakdataset.org.

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October 2022

Language Models Are Realistic Tabular Data Generators

Vadim Borisov, Kathrin Seßler, Tobias Leemann, Martin Pawelczyk, Gjergji Kasneci
Abstract

Tabular data is among the oldest and most ubiquitous forms of data. However, the generation of synthetic samples with the original data’s characteristics still remains a significant challenge for tabular data. While many generative models from the computer vision domain, such as autoencoders or generative adversarial networks, have been adapted for tabular data generation, less research has been directed towards recent transformer-based large language models (LLMs), which are also generative in nature. To this end, we propose GReaT (Generation of Realistic Tabular data), which exploits an auto-regressive generative LLM to sample synthetic and yet highly realistic tabular data. Furthermore, GReaT can model tabular data distributions by conditioning on any subset of features; the remaining features are sampled without additional overhead. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in a series of experiments that quantify the validity and quality of the produced data samples from multiple angles. We find that GReaT maintains state-of-the-art performance across many real-world data sets with heterogeneous feature types.

tl&dr The proposed GReaT approach utilizes the capabilities of pretrained large language models to synthesize realistic tabular data. A challenging set of experiments validates the GReaT method’s high generative qualtity.

Tabular data is among the oldest and most ubiquitous forms of data. However, the generation of synthetic samples with the original data’s characteristics still remains a significant challenge for tabular data. While many generative models from the computer vision domain, such as autoencoders or generative adversarial networks, have been adapted for tabular data generation, less research has been directed towards recent transformer-based large language models (LLMs), which are also generative in nature. To this end, we propose GReaT (Generation of Realistic Tabular data), which exploits an auto-regressive generative LLM to sample synthetic and yet highly realistic tabular data. Furthermore, GReaT can model tabular data distributions by conditioning on any subset of features; the remaining features are sampled without additional overhead. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in a series of experiments that quantify the validity and quality of the produced data samples from multiple angles. We find that GReaT maintains state-of-the-art performance across many real-world data sets with heterogeneous feature types.

tl&dr The proposed GReaT approach utilizes the capabilities of pretrained large language models to synthesize realistic tabular data. A challenging set of experiments validates the GReaT method’s high generative qualtity.

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IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
December 2022

Deep Neural Networks and Tabular Data: A Survey

Vadim Borisov, Tobias Leemann, Kathrin Seßler, Johannes Haug, Martin Pawelczyk, Gjergji Kasneci
Abstract

Heterogeneous tabular data are the most commonly used form of data and are essential for numerous critical and computationally demanding applications. On homogeneous datasets, deep neural networks have repeatedly shown excellent performance and have therefore been widely adopted. However, their adaptation to tabular data for inference or data generation tasks remains highly challenging. To facilitate further progress in the field, this work provides an overview of state-of-the-art deep learning methods for tabular data. We categorize these methods into three groups: data transformations, specialized architectures, and regularization models. For each of these groups, our work offers a comprehensive overview of the main approaches. Moreover, we discuss deep learning approaches for generating tabular data and also provide an overview over strategies for explaining deep models on tabular data. Thus, our first contribution is to address the main research streams and existing methodologies in the mentioned areas while highlighting relevant challenges and open research questions. Our second contribution is to provide an empirical comparison of traditional machine learning methods with 11 deep learning approaches across five popular real-world tabular datasets of different sizes and with different learning objectives. Our results, which we have made publicly available as competitive benchmarks, indicate that algorithms based on gradient-boosted tree ensembles still mostly outperform deep learning models on supervised learning tasks, suggesting that the research progress on competitive deep learning models for tabular data is stagnating. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in-depth overview of deep learning approaches for tabular data; as such, this work can serve as a valuable starting point to guide researchers and practitioners interested in deep learning with tabular data.

Heterogeneous tabular data are the most commonly used form of data and are essential for numerous critical and computationally demanding applications. On homogeneous datasets, deep neural networks have repeatedly shown excellent performance and have therefore been widely adopted. However, their adaptation to tabular data for inference or data generation tasks remains highly challenging. To facilitate further progress in the field, this work provides an overview of state-of-the-art deep learning methods for tabular data. We categorize these methods into three groups: data transformations, specialized architectures, and regularization models. For each of these groups, our work offers a comprehensive overview of the main approaches. Moreover, we discuss deep learning approaches for generating tabular data and also provide an overview over strategies for explaining deep models on tabular data. Thus, our first contribution is to address the main research streams and existing methodologies in the mentioned areas while highlighting relevant challenges and open research questions. Our second contribution is to provide an empirical comparison of traditional machine learning methods with 11 deep learning approaches across five popular real-world tabular datasets of different sizes and with different learning objectives. Our results, which we have made publicly available as competitive benchmarks, indicate that algorithms based on gradient-boosted tree ensembles still mostly outperform deep learning models on supervised learning tasks, suggesting that the research progress on competitive deep learning models for tabular data is stagnating. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in-depth overview of deep learning approaches for tabular data; as such, this work can serve as a valuable starting point to guide researchers and practitioners interested in deep learning with tabular data.

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